P-R

Parian

This beautiful ceramic body was first called Statuary Porcelain at the Spode factory. This beautiful new body was described, in about 1845, by sculptor John Gibson RA (1790-1866) as 'Decidedly the best material next to Marble'.

A little about parian ware and its marks can be found on my Spode and Rowing and Swimming blogpost. Click here.

Also click Apollo for another parian statue; and Spode and Spring for a figure.

You can also find a range of parian figures and tinted parian figures at the bottom of my blog Spode, The Art Gallery and Trelissick.

Example of a parian backstamp with sculptor's name & date
There are a number of parian busts and figures illustrated on Spode, Copeland, Waterloo and the Duke of Wellington.

Illustrations of and information about 2 beautiful parian busts can be found on 'The Bride and The Mother'
Catalogue 1851
Parian Group, 'Love Story' c1865. Sculptor: William Beattie


Pastille Burner
See Incense Burners on the I page; and also 'Spode and Incense Burners'.


Perfume
Perfume bottles were manufactured by Spode (see below) but also Incense Burners were made which were used to perfume a room. You can find out about these here: Incense Burners on the I page; and also 'Spode and Incense Burners'.

Here are some dictionary definitions from 'The Shorter Oxford Dictionary on Historical Principles':

Pastil, Pastille: first recorded usage 1648... 'a small roll of aromatic paste for burning as a perfume...esp...as a fumigator or disinfectant.'
Incense (noun): 1. 'an aromatic gum or mixture of fragrant gums or spices used for producing a sweet smell when burned'. 2. 'The smoke or perfume of incense for producing a sweet smell when burned.'
Incense (verb): 'to fumigate or perfume with incense'.


Perfume Bottles
Spode made perfume bottles from 18th century to around the middle of the 20th century. In the early 1800s in particular the designs used the most expensive of ceramics colours often with gold using specialist gilding techniques.

I have not written about them yet so when I do I will add the link. In the meantime here is an image of one from the early 20th century:
Perfume bottle with metal mount, c1900


Petunia
Petunia pattern was produced on the two-tone Flemish Green with Imperial Ivory body. It was designed by Harold Holdway. You can find out more on my F page under Flemish Green.
From 'The Fine English Dinnerware' booklet from Spode, 1959


Pheasant
Click Pheasant for my blog Spode and a Beautifully Marked Pheasant where you will find out about this pattern.


Pierced ware
Piercing was used as a method of decorating English ceramics from the early eighteenth century. Pierced examples are known of Staffordshire slipware, salt glazed stoneware and some tin glazed wares. From the middle of the 1700s, with the development of the creamware body, pierced ware became increasingly fashionable. Pierced creamware was produced in large quantities by a range of manufacturers from the 1770s onwards.
Spode creamware cress dish & stand, handpainted, pattern 687 c1805. The drain holes are made by piercing. They are decorative as well as practical.
The earliest use of the technique at Spode can be seen in earthenware. At first piercing appears to have been adopted for functional reasons as well as decorative. Examples dating from the 1790s and 1800s range from covers for potpourris, violet pots and drainers for meat dishes, to toast racks and chestnut baskets. The classic decorative use of the technique can be seen in the pierced arcaded borders of dessert wares of the 1790s. These pieces were further decorated in all kinds of manner. Examples from this period include creamware, green glazed ware, stoneware, blue and colour printed pearlware and early bone china.
Violet pot, bone china, gilded, with pierced cover pattern 341 c1803
Dessert plate, earthenware, Lattice Scroll pattern with pierced, arcaded border c1810

Piercing of early porcelains was notoriously difficult due to the tendency of the material to collapse during firing. In the early 1800s Spode's new stronger bone china permitted more elaborate use of the technique.

The fashion for piercing re-emerged in the mid-Victorian period when Islamic design began to influence all forms of decorative art following the Great Exhibition of 1851. In response to this market, the company introduced a new range of shapes for china dessert wares with intricate arcaded pierced designs inspired by Moorish architecture. These shape designs with names such as Madrid, Dagmar and Alhambra were used for the highest quality prestige wares and were further embellished with raised paste gilding, jewelled enamels and multi-fired grounds such as 'bleu celeste'.
Dessert plate, pierced Festoon Embossed shape, from the dessert service for HRH Prince of Wales & Princess Alexandra 1863
These prestigious services were painted by some of the best artists in the industry, such as Charles Ferdinand Hürten, possibly the best flower painter on ceramics of his generation. The Spode factory became renowned for the quality of these wares. Pierced services were made for the British royal family. In 1863 sixty ornate dessert plates were produced in Windsor pierced shape for use at the top table at the city banquet held in honour of HRH the Prince of Wales. In the same year the Prince himself commissioned a pierced dessert service in a pierced Festoon Embossed shape to mark his wedding to HRH the Princess Alexandra. These service are of a quality and intricacy unsurpassed in the industry.

In the 20th century, the technique fell out of fashion and the style was only revived in 1999 in limited edition sets of pierced plates. A new method of piercing ware using sand blasting by machine, rather than hand cutting, was pioneered at the Spode factory. Pierced designs with both traditional and modern shapes once more became part Spode production until the factory closed in 2009.

The range of Pierced Octagonal plates were a revival of a shape popular in the 1880s known as Japanese shape. The border has intricately pierced panels alternating with panels of small sprays of flowers. There were six different centres featuring large sprays of flowers such as primulas, tulips and roses. These were copied by Spode's designers from a dessert service made in 1827.
Pierced Octagonal shape plate 1999
The Pierced Regimental plates were a reissue of the Dagmar shape which was a popular pierced design of the late Victorian period. Each plate has a central design of fruit and flowers, a favourite combination for early handpainted Spode dessert services. Between the piercings are panels of delicate blossoms on a blue background surrounding an oval cartouche.



Pineapples
Click Spode and Pineapples for details of the special pots made by Spode to serve this exotic and once expensive fruit.

The Regency period seems to be the time when Spode made the most beautiful shapes, decorated with luscious patterns, for a pineapple served as a centrepiece to a lavish dessert course.

The underside of a Spode pineapple stand c1813




Plazzotta, Enzo
Go to Ballet Dancer Figures on the B page for information about the Spode-Plazzotta collaboration.


Pluck and Dust Printing
Click Spode and Regency Roses for my blog where you will find out a little about this onglaze method of printing. Here is a bone china cup in another pluck and dust printed pattern. It produces a delicate and elegant look.
Bute shape cup, pattern 1119, Love Chase border,
pluck and dust printed in iron red and gilded c1808

Polar Bear
A very stylish Art Deco polar bear was made in Velamour (on the V page); it was also made in Onyx - a soft grey body with a clear glaze. See Onyx on the O page for more about this lovely pottery body from Spode.
Polar Bear in Onyx
Onyx backstamp c1932

More about Spode animals on my blog Spode and Dogs - click here.




Polar Exploration 
Yes, really, there is a Spode company connection of great interest. Click Spode and Polar Exploration to find out more on this fascinating story.


Portland Vase

Portland Vase printed in green, c1832

Portland Vase pattern was first introduced in 1832. The first record of the design in the Spode pattern books has pattern number 5057. The unusual design of the border demands great skill of the transferrer if unsightly joins are to be avoided. The design features an engraving of a vase known as the Portland Vase.

The dessert plate here is printed in green - can you see the join on the border? Perhaps not the best bit of transfer printing from Spode - especially when you see the jaunty angle of the vase in the centre! To be fair at this period plates this shape were used with the point facing the diner not the straight edge.

The original fine blue glass vase with carved cameo decoration was bought by Sir William Hamilton for £1000 from James Byres, who had bought it from the Princess Barberini. The vase was probably made by Greek craftsmen in Alexandria in about 60 BC. Sir William Hamilton sold it to the Duchess of Portland in 1784 and, following her death in 1785, the Duke of Portland bought it at the auction of her effects in 1786. In 1845 while on loan from the Duke of Portland and on display on the British Museum it was smashed by an inebriated vandal, William Lloyd.

The image shows a catalogue page c1938 where the pattern is printed underglaze and then hand coloured onglaze. This is pattern number 2/6553 and was produced on Regimental shape. The pattern was produced in various versions following its introduction well into the 20th century. One pattern had the registered number 637852. This was registered on 3rd June 1914. The pattern was also known by the alternative name of Grecian.

 Spode Earthenware Catalogue 1938
Front cover of Spode Earthenware Catalogue 1938
Discontinued in 1940, it was reintroduced as one of the series called Victorian Dresser Plates as part of the Spode Blue Room Collection in the late 1990s, as a plain blue print. You can see another image of the pattern printed in blue at Spode Exhibition Online.


Potters Poppies
Click here for a version of this little known Art Deco design which may, or may not, have gone into production... X marks the spot!

 
Pyramids
You can find mention of Pyramid in relation to a shape by clicking here for 'Spode and Incense Burners' which also mentions Egyptomania.

There is a dessert connection with Pyramids too - click HERE> 




Rouletted Wares

Click HERE> for my blog Spode and a Teapot which shows a piece decorated by rouletting and a rouletted tool with a link to more tools. Explore Staffordshire Past Track further for Staffordshire history.

Also visit my Sprigged Stoneware page HERE>

Jug with weighted, hinged lid, c1920s



Royal College Shape
Royal College shape was designed by Neil French and David White of the Royal College of Art for production at Spode whilst under the Copeland's ownership. It was for the 'A Room of our Own' exhibition in 1958, following a drive by the college for stronger links between student designers and industry. The exhibition was intended to highlight the achievements of collaboration between the college and industry since World War II (1939-1945).


Provence pattern, 1961 catalogue
The shape was later to win the Duke of Edinburgh Prize for Elegant Design in 1960. It was promoted in a catalogue of 1961 as having been 'specially developed to suit all periods of furnishings, but especially those of more modern styles'. Great marketing speak!

It became an extremely popular shape in the UK over the next decade and was produced in a variety of patterns. In plain white it was known as Apollo and is regarded by students of modern design as a design icon. Go to my A page for more on Apollo at Spode...

Teapot, Apollo, Royal College shape

The patterns designed for Royal College shape included:

Golden Fern Y7841 introduced in 1958
Elizabethan with pattern number Y7842 introduced in 1958
Provence with pattern number Y7843 introduced in 1958 designed by Pat Albeck who was a fashion student at the RCA
Terra Rosa with pattern number Y8086 was produced in 1965 and is Provence in iron red.
Green Velvet with pattern number Y7869 introduced in 1958
St. John with pattern number Y7926 introduced in 1958 and designed by David Jackson
Margrave with pattern number Y7983 introduced in 1959 and designed by Michael Kitt
Brussels with pattern number Y7984 introduced in 1959
Gothic with pattern number Y8010 introduced in 1961 and designed by Michael Kitt
Persia with pattern number Y8018 introduced in 1961
Delphi with pattern number Y8022 introduced in 1961/2

HM the Queen commissioned a specially designed dinner and coffee service in Royal College shape with the monograms of HM King Konstantin, King of Greece and Princess Anna Marie of Denmark to present to them as a wedding present in 1964.


Glimpse of coffee pot & saucer for HM King Konstantin & Princess Anna Marie of Denmark 
The shape sold only a little in Canada and hardly at all in the USA. The shape was withdrawn by 1978 although some pieces in the shape were used to extend the range of the more popular Regimental shape, which remained in production in the early 21st century prior to the company closure in 2009.

Margrave pattern is particularly beautiful. The modern shape is decorated in classical style with the band of gold pattern at the top reminiscent of the patterns in the Spode pattern books of the early 1800s. The lower part is decorated in green by the technique known as groundlaying. (See my G page).
Margrave coffee can, 1960-1970

Royal Family
You can find out about Royal associations by clicking here for Spode and Royalty; click here for Spode & Royal Warrants; and here for Spode and Royal Weddings. An image here shows a presentation of Spode ware to HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother which was published in the Spode Saga magazine in 1954.

Many members of the Royal Family made visits to the Spode works, and the Spode London business, from the early 1800s to the late 1990s as well as being significant and regular customers.


Spode Saga Magazine 1954
Report featuring the Spode tea service designed by HRH Princess Margaret, 1957


Royal Jade 
Royal Jade is the name given to a range of Spode wares produced on Imperial (ivory coloured) earthenware body with a matt green glaze. It was first introduced in about 1932 but was discontinued in the late 1930s possibly due to restrictions on production imposed during World War II (1939-1945).

Matt coloured glazes were particularly popular in the 1930s and this trend was followed by other manufacturers. Plain colours which were most usual at this time were green, grey, ivory and yellow. The green glaze discussed here had its own backstamp 'SPODE'S Royal Jade ENGLAND'.


Royal Jade leaflet, 1933
A range of wares was produced which were mostly ornamental. The range was very varied and the leaflet produced in 1933 had a stylish Art Deco feel about it on the cover whilst more traditional shapes were illustrated inside.

Shapes from the early Spode period (the early 1800s) were reproduced in the Royal Jade finish and these included a Dresden Basket (unpierced); a dessert plate with basket mouldings and square dessert dishes. The ashtrays followed both traditional and modern designs and six different shapes were offered including a Utility shape. There was also a traditional Toby Jug known as a Daniel Lambert Jug which was produced in 3 sizes.

The 1930s leaflet illustrates only two animal figures: an Ape and a Greyhound but others are known to have been produced from pieces seen. Other pieces included dessert wares and items such as individual butters, Ameer shape cucumber tray, Chelsea shape flower pot, beehive honey pot, pomade box, powder box and several candlesticks.

Most of the pieces were given K numbers, a range of shape numbers recorded in the Spode archive. These numbers can be seen impressed on the bases of some pieces and are a guide to the date of introduction of a particular design (see K Books under K for more information). A Spode shape book is also annotated with J numbers which are thought to denote items made in the Royal Jade range. These numbers can be seen in the leaflet.

The description on the back of the 1933 leaflet is historically interesting and is as follows:

'As purchased by Her Majesty The Queen and other members of the Royal Family.

As will be seen from the illustrations shown in this folder, Spode's Royal Jade Ware is obtainable in a wide variety of shapes. The soft Green matt finish - the beauty of which no mere picture can adequately express - makes these articles particularly appealing.

Their ancestry - for this type of ware was first produced by Josiah Spode himself - makes them unusually interesting'.

The last sentence is a little misleading as, although green glazed ware was produced by Spode in the late 1700s/early 1800s, it did not have a matt finish and looked quite different, but there is no doubt that the pieces in the Spode museum influenced this 20th century range. Despite the glowing description in the publicity material the range was not reintroduced after the War.

Some of the same shapes were produced in Onyx, a grey body, Velamour (and later Vellum) a matt ivory finish, and in Imperial ware which was the ivory body with a clear shiny glaze. Neither Onyx nor Royal Jade were made after the 1930s.

Click Royal Jade for my blog post on the subject; more can be found about other bodies and designs relevant to this entry under Olsen and Onyx on the N-O page; Velamour on my T-V page.



Royal Jasmine
Royal Jasmine is the name given to a pale yellow glaze introduced in 1932. It was used for earthenware tableware, produced mainly in the 1930s, which was intended to give an effect similar to early English creamware of the 1750s and 1760s. Royal Jasmine was produced on Spode's Imperial earthenware body which was an ivory coloured earthenware.
Earthenware catalogue, Songster pattern, 1938

Various patterns were produced in the Royal Jasmine range which had its own backstamp often with the addition of a further backstamp with the company name and pattern name.

Audley, with pattern number S2401 introduced in 1939, along with Strathmere, with pattern number S2128 also of 1939, were two of the most popular designs for this ware. Others included Songster with pattern number S2097 of 1938 and Bang Up with pattern number S2374 of 1939.

Royal Jasmine continued in production throughout the 1950s with new patterns such as Brighton with pattern number S3287 introduced in 1958.

Changes to the texture and a decrease in the porosity of the Imperial earthenware body after 1962 rendered it unsuitable for use with coloured glazes and Royal Jasmine was discontinued.

Some of the patterns had teawares produced in bone china to accompany the earthenware dinner services. This is mentioned on the catalogue page illustrated here. These were given separate pattern numbers: for example Chinese Rose, pattern number Y7416 and Audley, pattern number Y7418 both introduced in 1954.


Backstamp
So Royal Jasmine is not a pattern name and should not be confused with the pattern called Jasmine. You can find out about Jasmine on the I-J page.